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Sand Replacement Method

Sand Pouring Cylinder Apparatus, IS: 2720 (Part 28)
This Apparatus is used for determination of the dry density of compact, fine, medium grained soils and for layers not exceeding 50 cm thickness. A circular hole is dug into the ground, all the soil from within it collected, weighed and dried, and the hole back-filled with a standard uniform sand or fine gravel, poured from a calibrated container for calculating the volume of hole. The apparatus consists of the following:
Sand Pouring Cylinder fitted with Conical Funnel and Shutter
SHIVAM offers following modals of sand pouring cylinder
Shivam Instruments India
Sand Pouring Cylinder Apparatus 100mm Dia.
Sand Pouring Cylinder Apparatus 150mm Dia.
Sand Pouring Cylinder Apparatus 200mm Dia.
It consist of
Cylindrical Calibration Container
Metal Tray, with central hole
Optional Extra
Metal Tray, without central hole.
Shivam Instruments India
Sensitive Volume Change Gauge
The Volume Change Gauge illustrated works on the principle of reversing the direction of flow when the limit of the volume change scale is reached. The number of cycles with the volume of fluid handled in each cycle provides the total volume change, whereas the sensitivity is governed by the dia of the polythene tube used.
The sensitive volume change gauge has realized sensitivity of 0.003 ml/mm with the 6 ml volume of fluid per cycle. The apparatus consists of a volume measuring polythene tube running along both sides of a scale and connected at both ends to two mercury traps. These traps are connected to flow reversal valves through a manifold. The length of the polythene tube is enough to measure 6 ml volume of fluid per cycle. A small pallet of mercury is introduced in the circuit to be used as a cursor, and the movement of pallet is measured. The unit is tested to a pressure of 20bar (20 kg/cm2) and is designed for wall mounting.

Shrinkage Limit

IS:2720 (Part 7), 10077, ASTM D 427, BS:1377, AASHO T 92
The Shrinkage Limit of a soil is defined as the moisture content at which any further reduction of moisture will not cause volume reduction. The shrinkage of clayey soil can be very significant. A fully saturated soil specimen is allowed to dry in free air and its volume is measured repeatedly by immersing in a mercury bath. From the data obtained from this test, Shrinkage Limit, Shrinkage Ratio, Shrinkage Index and Volumetric Shrinkage can be calculated. The choice of puddle clay materials is often governed by the results obtained from this test.
Shrinkage Limit Set
IS:10077 - 1982
It consist one each of
Glass Cylinder, graduated25 ml x 0.5 ml
Porcelain Evaporating Dish
Shrinkage Dish
Glass Cup
Perspex Prong Platewith three Metal Prongs
Perspex Plain Plate

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Particle Size Analysis

The analysis of soils by particle size provides a useful engineering classification system from which a considerable amount of empirical data can be obtained. This helps in ascertaining possible frost action, determining graded filters, selection of grouting materials, designing of cement and asphaltic concrete mixes, etc. Two different procedures are used for coarse and fine soils. Sieving is used for gravel as well as sand size particles and sedimentation procedures are used for finer soils. For soils containing coarse and fine soil particles, it is usual to employ both sieving and sedimentation procedures. SHIVAM provides the following range of equipment for performing particle size analysis.

Sieve Analysis
IS: 2720 (Part 4), ASTM D 422, AASHO T 88, BS: 1377
Sieves G.I. 45cm dia upto 2.36 mm
Sieves G.I. 30cm dia upto 2.36 mm
Sieves Brass 30cm dia upto 150micron
Sieves Brass 30cm dia 75micron
Shivam Instruments India
Sieves Brass 20cm dia upto150micron
Sieves Brass 20cm dia 75micron
Sieves Set
Sieve Shaker
To make the process of sieving easier and quicker, electrically operated mechanical Sieve Shakers are offered for dry sieving. These Sieve Shakers are popularly used not only in soil laboratories but also in a number of industries where sieving is required; such as for ores, refractory materials, minor aggregates, pigments, powdered coal, soap, cement, roofing materials, plastic moulding powders and pharmaceuticals. The Sieve Shaker can carry up to 7 sieves.
Shivam Instruments India
Sieve Shaker Manual
Hand Operated
Sieve Shaker motorised Gyratory for 200mm sieves
It is driven by a ¼ HP motor. The Sieve Table is inclined from the vertical axis and the direction of Inclination changes progressively in the clockwise direction. In addition to the gyratory motion of the table, there is a tapping motion as well.
Adaptor 300mm
Adaptor 450mm
Shivam Instruments India
Sieve Shaker Rotap.
This is heavy machined driven by a ¼ hp motor 220 Volts single phase 50 Hz.
It is exceptionally robust and lasting. The circular and end to end motion is given by hammer from the top. The shaker takes 8" Or 6" sieves. The shaker is recommended for I.S.S tests.

Moisture Content

IS: 2720 (Part 2); BS: 1377, 1924 and ASTM D2216
Moisture content of soil is generally measured as a ratio of the weight of water to the weight of solids, expressed as a percentage. As soil behaviour depends on its moisture content, it is one of the basic parameters defining the soil condition. To a control engineer, even a rapid moisture content check is extremely useful, as it gives an indication of the existing characteristics of the soil, which enables him some extent to decide on the pattern of test programme. A number of procedures have been suggested for carrying out water content tests in IS : 2720 (Part 2); BS : 1377, 1924 and ASTM D2216. The equipment listed below gives a range of suitable apparatus for this purpose..
Shivam Instruments India
Infra-Red Moisture Meter
IS: 2720 (Part 2) - 1973
This moisture meter has been designed for rapid and accurate determination of the moisture content of a wide variety of materials. It is a torsion wire instrument, the torque being applied to one end of the wire by means of a calibrated drum to balance the loss of weight as the test sample dries under infrared radiation. The speed of drying (about 30 min) thus obtained combined with the frictionless balancing system gives the results as accurate as those obtained by standard oven drying method. Since drying and weighing are simultaneous, it is specially useful for determination of moisture in substance, that quickly reabsorbs moisture after drying. The infrared radiation is controlled by a voltage regulator and thereby provides excellent heat control. The instrument is provided with an indicator lamp. The torsion balance has a built-in magnetic damper to reduce pan vibrations enabling quicker weighing. The balance scale (drum) is divided in terms of moisture percentages on wet weight basis, which are read directly from it. Graduations are from 0 to 100% in 0.2 % divisions, but readings may be estimated to 0.1 % moisture content. It is a portable unit, supplied complete with one Infra-Red Lamp and Thermometer. Suitable for operation on 230 V, 50 Hz, Single phase, AC Supply.

Optional Extras
Infra Red Lamp
Torsion Wire pack of six
Speedy Moisture Meter
IS: 2720 (Part 2) - 1973 IS: 12175-1987
Using a speedy moisture meter, the moisture content of soils, sand and other fine-grained material can be obtained quickly with reasonable accuracy. The test technique is based on the fact that water will react with calcium carbide to form acetylene gas and the quantity of gas formed is directly proportional to the water present, leaving a surplus of the chemical used in the test. The quantity of acetylene gas produced is indicated on a built-in pressure gauge, which is calibrated in percentage of moisture on wet weight basis.
Shivam Instruments India
Speedy Moisture Meter
Range 0 - 25%, Gauge Division: 1%
Speedy Moisture Meter
Range 0 - 50%, Gauge Division: 1%
Each instrument is supplied complete in a carrying case fitted with counterpoised balance for weighing the sample, SSOop for measuring carbide reagent, a set of steel balls and a cleaning brush
Calcium Carbide Reagent in a container of 500 gm
Shivam Instruments India
Standard Penetration Test Set
Standard Penetration Test is a powerful tool for measuring the penetration resistance of the ground and relating it to the degree of compactness of cohesion less soil and consistency of cohesive soil. The results can be used for design of foundations. SPT is widely used for measuring the undisturbed strength of the soil and for assessing its resistance to liquefaction due to ground vibrations caused by earthquakes or other dynamic forces. The Standard Penetration Resistance is measured as the number of blows 'N' required to drive a split spoon sampler to a depth of 300 mm using a 65 kg weight falling freely through a height of 750 mm.
The equipment consists of the following
Split Spoon Sampler with Brass Liner or without Liner
Drive Weight Cast Iron, 65 kg
Guide Pipe Assembly
Tripod, with Pulley and built-in Ladder
'A' Type Drill Rods
10 rod having 1 meter length
Split Spoon Sampler with Brass Liner
Split Spoon Sampler without Brass Liner
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