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Dutch Sounding Methods


IS: 4968 (Part III)-1976
Features
Extensive use of Static Cone Penetrometer originated in Holland where buildings are constructed in areas mostly reclaimed from the sea-bed. In the recent past, a number of research projects in the country have been undertaken in order to correlate Static Cone Test results with the Standard (Dynamic) Penetration Test results, resulting in widely different correlation factors depending upon local geological history. The Static Cone Penetration Test is also found to be a handy tool for predetermining the length and estimating the load carrying capacities of piles passing through soft compressible strata and resting upon hard clays, sands or gravel. The penetration resistance of the cone has nearly the same value as the load which can be carried by the actual pile per unit area of the pile tip. By using the additional friction jacket with the standard equipment, identification of various soil types is also possible. To use the Static Cone Penetrometer, a truncated steel cone (60° angle, 10 cm2 at base) is forced vertically into the soil by static thrust, required to cause a bearing capacity failure of the soil immediately surrounding the point where measurements are required to be made. Such measurements made at suitably desired intervals, provide a continuous bearing capacity profile and hence shear strength profile of the soil at the sounding location. The cone point is advanced with a two rod system. The outer casing protects the inner rod from soil friction and buckling. The protected inner rod advances the cone during the sounding operation and the pressure is measured on pressure gauges. The friction jacket helps in obtaining additional information like static soil friction (skin friction) against the steel sleeve. Two types of mantle tubes each 1 m long are available. The mantle tube with uniform dia of 36 mm enables the determination of total cumulative skin friction of the soil in addition to the cone resistance. If however, cone resistance is the main requirement and cumulative skin friction is not to be measured, then mantle tubes of non-uniform dia are to be used. The judicious combination of both types of tubes would be the ideal one, the number of each depending upon local geological history.
SSO-1062
Static Cone Penetrometer, 30 Kn (3000 kgf) capacity, Hand Operated
IS: 4968 (Part 3)-1976 (Reaffirmed in 1987)
The drive is by means of a rack and pinion manually through a gearing arrangement. The gear box and pinion are fixed on two handles, sprockets and chain arrangement. The movement of the rack is guided by a bracket (attached to the rack) and two pillars. The penetration resistance i.e. the pressure, is indicated on hydraulic gauges through a hydraulic measuring head. Two pressure gauges of 15 cm dia dial and capacities 0-160 kg/cm2and 0-60 kg/ cm2are provided. An automatic cut-off valve, to protect the low capacity gauge from being overloaded, is provided. The valve can be adjusted and locked at desirable values between 20 to 60 kg/cm2. A provision is made to anchor the unit to the ground (with the help of four anchors supplied with the unit) and there is a provision for lateral movement of the unit, so that subsequent tests could be performed without shifting the entire anchorage. A 10-cm2-penetration cone with friction jacket is provided along with fifteen mantle tubes (non-uniform) having an effective length of 1 m each with sounding rods for finding out the cone (point) resistance or jacket friction.It consist of :
SSO-1062.1
Penetration Cone steel, 60° angle, 10 cm2 base area with friction jacket    -    One
SSO-1062.2
Mantle Tube non-uniform, 36 mm OD at the two ends and reduced dia in between with sounding rod, working length 1 m Fifteen
SSO-1062.3
Load Measuring Headwith Automatic Cut-off Valve, Pressure Gauges and Oil    -    One
SSO-1062.4
Pressure Gauge 0-160 kg/cm2    -    One
SSO-1062.5
Pressure Gauge 0-60 kg/cm2    -    One
SSO-1062.6
Screw Anchor with Bolt    -    Four
SSO-1062.7
Anchor Driving Handle    -    One
SSO-1062.8
T-Rod    -    One
SSO-1062.9
Spanner    -    One
Shivam Instruments India
SSO-1063
Static Cone Penetrometer Capacity 98 kN (10,000 kgf) (Engine Driven) IS: 4968 (Part 3)-1976 (Reaffirmed in 1987)
For reaching greater depths and to facilitate easy and constant rate of penetration of 1 to 2.5 cm/sec of the cone, this engine-driven Static Cone Penetrometer of 100 kN (10,000 kgf) capacity is preferable. The equipment consists of a hydraulic pump driven by a Diesel Engine. The whole system is mounted on a towable trolley fitted with pneumatic wheels. The pumping unit and ram are connected by means of flexible pipes through a direction control valve. The hydraulic ram moves on a two-pillar stand mounted on a trolley. Complete with the following:
Penetration Cone steel, 60° cone angle, 10 cm2 base area, with Friction Jacket    -    One
Mantle Tube, EN-8, 36 mm uniform OD with Sounding Rod of EN-16, length 1 m    -    Thirty
Load Measuring Head with Automatic Cut-off Valve, Pressure Gauges and Oil Can    -    One
Pressure Gauge 0-600 x 5 kg/cm2    -    One
Pressure Gauge 0-100 x 1 kg/cm2    -    One
Trusses    -   Two
Screw Anchors (45 cm)   -   Six
Screw Anchors (30 cm)    -    Six
Screw Anchors (20 cm)    -    Six
Screw Anchors Rods with cone    -    Six
Driving handle for Screw Anchors    -    One
Extension Pipe for Handle    -    Four
Clamping Screw with Nuts    -    Six
Extractor Tube with Connector    -    One
Tool Box    -    One
Tarpaulin Cover    -    One
SSO-1064
Static Cone Penetrometer Capacity 98 kN
Same as SSO-1063 but having the self-starter with battery arrangement.
SSO-1065
Static Cone Penetrometer, 200kN (20,000kgf) engine driven, self-start
The hydraulic ram moves on a two-pillar stand mounted on a trolley. Complete with the following:.
Penetration Cone steel, 60° cone angle, 10 cm2 base area, with Friction Jacket    -    One
Mantle Tube, EN-8, 36 mm uniform OD with Sounding Rod of EN-16, length 1 m    -    Thirty
Load Measuring Head with Automatic Cut-off Valve, Pressure Gauges and Oil Can    -    One
Pressure Gauge 0-600 x 5 kg/cm2    -    One
Pressure Gauge 0-100 x 1 kg/cm2    -    One
Trusses    -   Two
Screw Anchors (45 cm)   -   Six
Screw Anchors (30 cm)    -    Six
Screw Anchors (20 cm)    -    Six
Screw Anchors Rods with cone    -    Six
Driving handle for Screw Anchors    -    One
Extension Pipe for Handle    -    Four
Clamping Screw with Nuts    -    Six
Extractor Tube with Connector    -    One
Tool Box    -    One
Tarpaulin Cover    -    One
SSO-1066
Swell Test Apparatus manual
SSO-1067
Thin Wall Sampler
Inner Dia. 50 mm.
SSO-1068
Thin Wall Sampler
Inner Dia. 100 mm.




Triaxial Cells


IS: 2720 (Part 11) & (Part 12)
The cell cylinders are made from acrylic plastic material and those for use upto 20 bar (20 kg/cm 2) are usually reinforced by bands. Each cell has four take-off positions, drilled in the base, for the following purposes:
- Cell pressure
- Pore water pressure
- Drainage or backpressure
All valves are of 'no-volume change' type.
Shivam Instruments India
SSO-1069
Triaxial Cell, Stationary Bushing. For universal 100mm dia
IS: 2720(Part XII)
For testing the specimen of 38mm, 50mm, 75 mm, and 100mm. It consist of perspex chamber with anvil and loading plunger
SSO-1070
Triaxial Cell, Stationary Bushing
IS: 2720(Part XII)
For testing specimen of size 38mm dia X 76mm long
Shivam Instruments India
SSO-1071
Triaxial Test Outfit, Motorised
It consists of:
Load frame, Motorised, 50KN capacity and 30 speeds Two speed constant strain, screw jack type.
Triaxial cell Stationary bushing accommodating universal type dia sample.
Lateral Pressure Assembly, (Pressure Chamber with foot pump) capacity 10kg/cm sq.
Volume change gauge
Proving Ring with Integral Boss, high sensitivity type
Dial gauge 0.01 X 25mm for strain measurement.
Constant Pressure System Oil / Water type. 20Bar(20kg/cm sq)
SSO-1072
Triaxial Test Outfit, Digital
Same as SSO-1071 with Digital Indicator
SSO-1073
Triaxial Test Outfit, Motorised
It consists of:
Load frame, Motorised, 50KN capacity and 30 speeds
Two speed constant strain, screw jack type.
Triaxial cell Stationary bushing accommodating 38 mm dia. samples.
Lateral Pressure Assembly, (Pressure Chamber with foot pump) capacity 10kg/cm sq.
Volume change gauge
Proving Ring with Integral Boss, high sensitivity type
Dial gauge 0.01 X 25mm for strain measurement.
Constant Pressure System Oil / Water type. 20Bar(20kg/cm sq)




Laboratory Vane Shear

Vane Shear Tests are conducted where it is difficult to obtain suitable specimens or where intrusion from a sampling tube may cause too much of a disturbance. The validity of strength test results carried out, on soils, which have shear strength in the order of 15 kN/m2 and lower, is very largely dependent on the care and skill with which the operator conducts the test. Disturbance of these types of soft soil, particularly the sensitive clays, takes place when sampling tubes are pushed into them. Experience has shown that carefully controlled compression test results can be related to figures obtained by pushing a small vane into the soil rotating at the controlled rate and measuring the force required to maintain a maximum reading of resistance.

Laboratory Vane Shear Apparatus
IS:2720 (Part 30)-1980
Consists of a torque head, adjustable in height by means of a lead screw rotated by a drive wheel to enable the vane to be lowered into the specimen. Rotation of the vane is by means of an electric motor which operates a worm gear arrangement turning the upper end of a calibrated torsion spring. The vane shaft is attached through the hollow upper shaft to a reset table pointer which indicates the angle of torque on a dial graduated in degrees. The dial reading multiplied by spring factor gives the torque.
SSO-1074
Laboratory Vane Shear Apparatus,
Motorised. Rate of rotation: 1/60 rpm, operates on 230, 50 Hz, Single Phase, AC supply Supplied complete with
Container 1 No.
Set of 3 Springs Each of capacity 2 kg-cm, 4 kg-cm and 8 kg-cm, 2 Sets (complete with a wooden carrying case)
Extra
Stand for use at the site
SSO-1075
Vane Shear Apparatus, Laboratory, manual
Same as above but operation is manual
SSO-1076
In-situ Vane Shear Apparatus,
Capacity 2000kg, gear type
SSO-1077
Plate Bearing Capacity, with 30, 45, 60 cm sqr. Chequered plates and accessories
SSO-1078
Load Truss 200kN (20,000 kgf)
SSO-1078.1
Load Truss 300kN (30,000 kgf)
SSO-1078.2
Load Truss 500kN (50,000 kgf)
SSO-1079
Penetrometer, Proving Ring Type. (Vicksberg Penetrometer
Simple and light instrument for measuring static penetration resistance. The thrust force is provided directly by the operator who, by pushing on the T handle, forces the cone into the soil.The encountered resistance is measured on the fitted load ring. Testing is only possible in soils with good consistency and for short depths.
Specifications
Shivam Instruments India
SSO-1080
Linear shrinkage mould
This test covers the determination of linear shrinkage of soils and indicates the plastic properties of soils with a low clay content. The mould is 140 mm long x 12.5 mm radius.
SSO-1081
Soil Hydrometer
It consists of clear transparent glass having uniform clarity through out the hydrometer which density scale is engraved. The scale range is 0.995 to 1.030 densities (gms/ml) at 27 degree centigrade.
SSO-1082
Jar for Soil Hydrometer
Graduated glass cylinder made of borosilicate glass and 1000 ml capacity and dimension is 457 mm height and 60 mm dia.
Shivam Instruments India
SSO-1083
Sand Equivalent Apparatus
The apparatus (contained in a carrying case), consists of 4 graduated plastic cylinders, rubber stopper, irrigator tube, weighted foot assembly, syphon assembly, rubber tubing, measuring tin, funnel and bottle of special concentrated solution (250 ml).
SSO-1084
Sand Equivalent Apparatus with Motorised Shaker
A robust frame gives a good stability to the machine; Stroke 203 mm - Rate 175 strokes/min. Power supply: 220 V, 50 Hz, and single phase
SSO-1085
Permeability Test (Constant Head and Falling Head Methods)
SSO-1086
Lateral Pressure Assembly, 10kg/cm2
SSO-1087
Foot Pump for Lateral Pressure Assembly
Shivam Instruments India
SSO-1088
Core Cutter for soil (Dolly and rammer)
IS:2720 (Part 29)
Core Cutter of known volume is driven into the soil by a rammer. The core cutter is dug out, trimmed and the soil inside weighed and dried for moisture and density check. The equipment consists one each of:
Cylindrical Core Cutter Made of steel,
100 mm dia x 130 mm long
Steel Dolly, 25 mm high and 100 mm dia fitted with a lip, to enable it to be located on top of the Core-Cutter
Rammer With Steel Rod
SSO-1089
Soil Lathe Motorized
SSO-1090
Relative Density Apparatus
SSO-1091
SSO-1091
It consist of Aluminium and use for keeping the samples
Following sizes are available
1) 100mm Dia x75 mm Height
2) 50mm Dia x 30 mm Height
3) 55mm Dia x 35 mm Height
4) 70mm Dia x 45 mm Height
5) 80mm Dia x 50 mm Height
SSO-1091
Unconfined Compression Testing Machine, Manual
IS: 2720 (Part 10),
Unconfined Compression Testing of soil is a quick and simple method to study the behaviour of soil. This is generally done on cohesive soils. In this test, specimen is subjected to uniaxial compression without any lateral support. The equipment can be used for determining the unconfined compression strength of cohesive soil specimens of 38mm, 50mm, 75mm and 100mm dia size.
The equipment comprises of the following
1. One loading unit, 50 kN (5000 kgf) capacity with three rates of travel.
2. One top platen with spring and ball seat arrangement
3. One bracket: for dial gauge mounting
4. One adaptor for proving ring
5. One extra plate for lower platen
6. One spanner
SSO-1092
Unconfined Compression Testing Machine, Motorised
The Compression Testing is suitable for operation on 220 volts, 50 Hz., Single Phase, AC Supply.
SSO-1093D
Unconfined Compression Testing Machine, Motorised, Digital
Same as SSO-1092 but with Digital read out.
SSO-1094
Front loading odemeter single cell with table for three cell
SSO-1095
Anderson pipette 10 ml with water bath and cylinder of 550 ml
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